ASC Division on Corrections and Sentencing Handbook Volume 2: Handbook on Punishment Decisions: Locations of Disparity, Jeffrey T. Ulmer and Mindy Bradley (Editors)

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Table of Contents

Introduction: Jeffery T. Ulmer and Mindy Bradley

Policy Choices and Mass Punishment

Chapter 1: Rodney Engen: “Does Reducing the Prison Population Reduce Racial Disproportionality in Imprisonment? Implications of the Recent Decline in US Imprisonment Rates”

Chapter 2: Michelle Phelps: “Mass Probation and Inequality: Race, Class, and Gender Disparities in Supervision and Revocation.”

Chapter 3: Aaron Kupchik and Akilah Alleyne: “Sowing the Seeds of Future Justice System Disparities:” School Punishment and the School to Prison Pipeline.”

Disparities in Pre-Conviction Processes

Chapter 4: Marisa Omori and Rachel Lautenschlager: “Cumulative Disadvantage and the Geography of Racial Inequality in Criminal Punishment.

Chapter 5: Megan Kurlychek and Heather Washington: “’Escape From Punishment: Exploring the Sealing of a Criminal Record and Potential Disparities in its Application.”

Chapter 6: Shi Yan, Shawn Bushway, and Allison Redlich: “Discretion in the Absence of Guidelines: Charge Bargaining and Sentencing for Felony Defendants in New York.”

Chapter 7: John Wooldredge, Jim Frank, and Natalie Goulette: “Perspectives Informing Defense Attorney Effects on Criminal Case Outcomes.”

Disparities in Punishment Outcomes

Chapter 8: Darrell Steffensmeier and Noah Painter-Davis: “Focal Concerns Theory as Conceptual Tool for Studying Intersectionality in Sentencing Disparities: Focus on Gender and Race along with Age.”

Chapter 9: Cassia Spohn, Pauline K. Brennan, and Byungbae Kim: “Racial and Ethnic Disparities among Female Offenders Adjudicated in Federal Courts: Explicating the Patterns of Disparities Using a Path Model.”

Chapter 10: Hilde Wermink, Sigrid van Wingerden, Johan van Wilsem and Paul Nieuwbeerta: “Studying Ethnic Disparities in Sentencing: The Importance of Refining Ethnic Minority Measures.”

Chapter 11: Lieber, Michael, Jennifer Peck, Melanie Valentin Rosa, and Tayler Shreve. “The Relationship between the Gender of the Probation Officer and Judicial Sentencing: Implications for Black Male Offenders.”

Chapter 12: “Race, Facial Appearance, and the Focal Concerns of Sentencing.” Brian Johnson and Rebecca Richardson.

Chapter 13: Sean Maddan and Richard Hartley: “Toward the Development of a Standardized Focal Concerns Theory of Sentencing.”

Risk: Race, Age, and Social Class

Chapter 14: Julia Laskorunsky: “Assessment of Offender Risk at Sentencing: A Potential for Disparity?”

Chapter 15: Rose Ricciardelli, Michael Adorjan, and James Lant: “Assessment Disparities after Federal Incarceration in Canada.”

Chapter 16: Jonathan Evans: “‘Objects of Concern’ or ‘Risky Young Offenders’? Assessment and Intervention with Children in the Public Care and Youth Justice Systems of England and Wales.”