|Management theories X, Y and Z have been used as the basis for defining management cultures. The theory X manager is authoritative in nature, and the organization is characterized by policy being set at the top and carried out by subordinates. Douglas McGregory popularized theories X and Y. The theory X manager has a, my way or the highway, message that is often duplicated in military or semi-military organizations, such as, law enforcement. The theory Y manager emphsizes, people skills, and humanistic managers motivate people. The third management style, theory Z, is participatory. The theory Z manager would invite his subordinates to participate in management decisions. In fact, the line workers would be included in decisions regarding the quality and nature of their work. Quality circles comprising management and labor form task groups to formulate policy.
The Hammond, Indiana Police Department has expanded the quality circle to include higher education, specifically Calumet College of St. Joseph. Beginning in 2000, the authors, both former Chicago Police Investigators, became part of a research team working with police administrators and police officers. During phase I of the project, a citizen perception survey was conducted to measure the level of satisfaction Hammond residents had for the police department. Hammond is a city,w hich is become more diverse. Perceptions of crime and police effectiveness were compared with factual data regarding crime and police response.
After the survey was completed and unveiled to the public, the city administration decided to continue their collaboration with CCSJ. The college is now engaged in designing a cultural diversity course for the police department. The city administration is also promoting higher education for police officers, and tuition stipends to attend the college. The college/city research team remains intact.
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