Filling in the Gap in the Causal Link of Deterrence

KyuBeom Choi, Florida State University
Gary Kleck, Florida State University

ABSTRACT
The primary purpose of the paper is probing the role of critical intervening variable (i.e., the individual's perceived threat of punishment) in deterrence research. Using official data (county level) and survey data (individual level), the authors examine the critical causal link of deterrence theory with HLM (Hierarchical Linear Modeling) technique.

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Updated 05/20/2006