|This study is an empirical exploration of socio-demographic factors in illicit drug use. Applying hierarchical linear models to the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM) data, we attempt to examine the influence of socio-demographic factors on illicit drug use at an individual and aggregated levels. Since the present study employs data on individuals nested within zip code areas and zip code areas nested within the 38 ADAM sites, it is possible to postulate a three-level hierarchical model (HLM3). The level-1 model addresses the relationships among the respondent-level variables, the level-2 model explains the influence of zip code area-level factors, and the level-3 model integrates city-level effects. Based on a theoretical framework in which physical, family, and population characteristics would reflect different lifestyles, living conditions, and social structures, we attempt to analyze how significant socio-demographic factors are as a determinant of illicit drug use.
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