|Many criminologists have expressed considerable dissatisfaction with existing theories of crime and deviance noting that single theories have failed to adequately explain deviant behavior. As a result, many advocate theoretical integration as a viable alternative to single theories in explaining criminality. However, in order to develop a more complete crime theory, an examination of both offenders and victims is necessary. The primary purpose of crime theories is to determine what motivates the offender to commit a criminal act, but they ignore the role of the victims in the criminal or delinquent events. To date, the integration of criminological and victimization theories remain unexamined in empirical research. The present research fills this gap by synthesizing social bond, differential association, and routine activity theories into one theoretical model to determine its predictive utility in the explanation of juvenile delinquency. Using cross-sectional data obtained from the Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) survey, a sample of 1,555 middle school students were examined. The theoretical implications of the integrated model are discussed.
(Return to Program Resources)