Perceptions of Minority and Female Opportunities for Job Advancement: Prison Staff and Beliefs About Equal Opportunities

Scott D. Camp, Federal Bureau of Prisons

ABSTRACT
Perceptions of job advancement opportunities are examined for a large correctional agency that practices affirmative action. Outcome measures are analyzed that compare respondents' perceptions of their own job advancment opportunities with the opportunities they believe to exist for women and minorities. The attitudinal data are taken fromthe 2001 administration of the Prison Social Climate Survey by the Federal Bureau of Prisons.

Multilevel models are employed that permit the simultaneous examination of individual- and institutional-level covariates. The respondents were taken from 99 different prisons (N=4,596). Individual-level variables include race, sex, ethnicity, education, supervisory status, and occupation. Institutional-level variables include sex of the warden, proportion of supervisors who are female/minority, the proportion of promotions/new hires going to females and minorities, and similar types of measures. Also included at the institutional level are variables often seen in correctional research such as security level of the institution.

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Updated 05/20/2006