Hate Crimes in Pennsylvania 1984-1999: Case Characteristics and Police Responsive Action

Mindy Wilson, Pennsylvania State University
R. Barry Ruback, The Pennsylvania State University

ABSTRACT
In order to better understand factors related to the occurrence and processing of hate crimes, we examined all 2,075 reports of hate crimes incidents to the Pennsylvania Human relations Commission during the 15-year period, 1984-1998. Of particular interest is how victim, offender, and offense characteristics affect the involvement of local police and other law enforcement agencies in response to hate crimes. In addition, this study explores how county-level contextual factors, such as poverty, ethnic heterogeneity, and education level, might moderate the occurrence and processing of hate crimes.

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Updated 05/20/2006